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Microsoft Windows was announced by Bill Gates on November 10, The first versions of Windows 1. Windows 95 , though still being based on MS-DOS, was its own operating system, using a bit DOS-based kernel [ citation needed ] and a bit user space. Windows 95 introduced many features that have been part of the product ever since, including the Start menu , the taskbar , and Windows Explorer renamed File Explorer in Windows 8.

It aimed to integrate Internet Explorer and the web into the user interface and also brought many new features into Windows, such as the ability to display JPEG images as the desktop wallpaper and single window navigation in Windows Explorer. Windows 98 included USB support out of the box, and also plug and play , which allows devices to work when plugged in without requiring a system reboot or manual configuration.

In , Microsoft released Windows NT 3. Unlike the Windows 9x series of operating systems, it is a fully bit operating system. In , Windows NT 4. Windows NT was originally designed to be used on high-end systems and servers, but with the release of Windows , many consumer-oriented features from Windows 95 and Windows 98 were included, such as the Windows Desktop Update , Internet Explorer 5 , USB support and Windows Media Player.

These consumer-oriented features were further extended in Windows XP in , which included a new visual style called Luna , a more user-friendly interface, updated versions of Windows Media Player and Internet Explorer 6 by default, and extended features from Windows Me, such as the Help and Support Center and System Restore. Windows Vista , which was released in , focused on securing the Windows operating system against computer viruses and other malicious software by introducing features such as User Account Control.

New features include Windows Aero , updated versions of the standard games e. Despite this, Windows Vista was critically panned for its poor performance on older hardware and its at-the-time high system requirements. Windows 7 followed in nearly three years after its launch, and despite it technically having higher system requirements, [3] [4] reviewers noted that it ran better than Windows Vista. Windows 8 , which was released in , introduced many controversial changes, such as the replacement of the Start menu with the Start Screen, the removal of the Aero interface in favor of a flat, colored interface as well as the introduction of “Metro” apps later renamed to Universal Windows Platform apps , and the Charms Bar user interface element, all of which received considerable criticism from reviewers.

The following version of Windows, Windows 10 , which was released in , reintroduced the Start menu and added the ability to run Universal Windows Platform apps in a window instead of always in full screen. Windows 10 was generally well-received, with many reviewers stating that Windows 10 is what Windows 8 should have been. The latest version of Windows, Windows 11 , was released on October 5, Windows 11 incorporates a redesigned user interface, including a new Start menu, a visual style featuring rounded corners, and a new layout for the Microsoft Store, [13] and also included Microsoft Edge by default.

The first independent version of Microsoft Windows, version 1. The project was briefly codenamed “Interface Manager” before the windowing system was implemented—contrary to popular belief that it was the original name for Windows and Rowland Hanson , the head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the name Windows would be more appealing to customers.

Windows 1. The first version of Microsoft Windows included a simple graphics painting program called Windows Paint ; Windows Write , a simple word processor ; an appointment calendar; a card-filer; a notepad ; a clock; a control panel ; a computer terminal ; Clipboard ; and RAM driver. Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apple’s new Macintosh computer, which featured a graphical user interface.

As part of the related business negotiations, Microsoft had licensed certain aspects of the Macintosh user interface from Apple; in later litigation, a district court summarized these aspects as “screen displays”.

In the development of Windows 1. For example, windows were only displayed “tiled” on the screen; that is, they could not overlap or overlie one another.

On December 31, , Microsoft declared Windows 1. Microsoft Windows version 2. Much of the popularity for Windows 2. Microsoft Windows received a major boost around this time when Aldus PageMaker appeared in a Windows version, having previously run only on Macintosh.

Some computer historians [ who? Like prior versions of Windows, version 2. In such a configuration, it could run under another multitasker like DESQview , which used the protected mode. It was also the first version to support the High Memory Area when running on an Intel compatible processor. Version 2. In Apple Computer, Inc. Microsoft Corp. Judge William Schwarzer dropped all but 10 of Apple’s claims of copyright infringement, and ruled that most of the remaining 10 were over uncopyrightable ideas.

On December 31, , Microsoft declared Windows 2. Windows 3. A few months after introduction, Windows 3. A “multimedia” version, Windows 3.

This version was the precursor to the multimedia features available in Windows 3. The features listed above and growing market support from application software developers made Windows 3.

Support was discontinued on December 31, Its API was incompatible with Windows. Version 1. They cooperated with each other in developing their PC operating systems, and had access to each other’s code. After an interim 1. Microsoft would later imitate much of it in Windows Still, much of the system had bit code internally which required, among other things, device drivers to be bit code as well.

It also removed Real Mode, and only ran on an or better processor. Later Microsoft also released Windows 3. In and , Microsoft released Windows for Workgroups WfW , which was available both as an add-on for existing Windows 3.

Windows for Workgroups included improved network drivers and protocol stacks, and support for peer-to-peer networking. There were two versions of Windows for Workgroups, WfW 3. Unlike prior versions, Windows for Workgroups 3. All these versions continued version 3. Even though the 3. The Windows API became the de facto standard for consumer software. On December 31, , Microsoft declared Windows 3.

Meanwhile, Microsoft continued to develop Windows NT. This successor was codenamed Cairo. In hindsight, Cairo was a much more difficult project than Microsoft had anticipated and, as a result, NT and Chicago would not be unified until Windows XP —albeit Windows , oriented to business, had already unified most of the system’s bolts and gears, it was XP that was sold to home consumers like Windows 95 and came to be viewed as the final unified OS.

Driver support was lacking due to the increased programming difficulty in dealing with NT’s superior hardware abstraction model. This problem plagued the NT line all the way through Windows Programmers complained that it was too hard to write drivers for NT, and hardware developers were not going to go through the trouble of developing drivers for a small segment of the market.

Additionally, although allowing for good performance and fuller exploitation of system resources, it was also resource-intensive on limited hardware, and thus was only suitable for larger, more expensive machines.

However, these same features made Windows NT perfect for the LAN server market which in was experiencing a rapid boom, as office networking was becoming common.

Windows NT version 3. The Win32 API had three levels of implementation: the complete one for Windows NT, a subset for Chicago originally called Win32c missing features primarily of interest to enterprise customers at the time such as security and Unicode support, and a more limited subset called Win32s which could be used on Windows 3. Thus Microsoft sought to ensure some degree of compatibility between the Chicago design and Windows NT, even though the two systems had radically different internal architectures.

Windows NT was the first Windows operating system based on a hybrid kernel. The hybrid kernel was designed as a modified microkernel , influenced by the Mach microkernel developed by Richard Rashid at Carnegie Mellon University, but without meeting all of the criteria of a pure microkernel. As released, Windows NT 3. The 3. Support for Windows NT 3. After Windows 3.

The Win32 API first introduced with Windows NT was adopted as the standard bit programming interface, with Win16 compatibility being preserved through a technique known as ” thunking “. A new object-oriented GUI was not originally planned as part of the release, although elements of the Cairo user interface were borrowed and added as other aspects of the release notably Plug and Play slipped. Microsoft did not change all of the Windows code to bit; parts of it remained bit albeit not directly using real mode for reasons of compatibility, performance, and development time.

Additionally it was necessary to carry over design decisions from earlier versions of Windows for reasons of backwards compatibility, even if these design decisions no longer matched a more modern computing environment.

These factors eventually began to impact the operating system’s efficiency and stability. Microsoft marketing adopted Windows 95 as the product name for Chicago when it was released on August 24, Microsoft had a double gain from its release: first, it made it impossible for consumers to run Windows 95 on a cheaper, non-Microsoft DOS, secondly, although traces of DOS were never completely removed from the system and MS DOS 7 would be loaded briefly as a part of the booting process, Windows 95 applications ran solely in enhanced mode, with a flat bit address space and virtual memory.

These features make it possible for Win32 applications to address up to 2 gigabytes of virtual RAM with another 2 GB reserved for the operating system , and in theory prevented them from inadvertently corrupting the memory space of other Win32 applications. Three years after its introduction, Windows 95 was succeeded by Windows Unlike with Windows 3. Microsoft case, blaming unfair marketing tactics on Microsoft’s part.

Some companies sold new hard drives with OSR2 preinstalled officially justifying this as needed due to the hard drive’s capacity. The first Microsoft Plus! Microsoft ended extended support for Windows 95 on December 31, Microsoft released the successor to NT 3. It was Microsoft’s primary business-oriented operating system until the introduction of Windows Microsoft ended mainstream support for Windows NT 4.

Both editions were succeeded by Windows Professional and the Windows Server Family, respectively. This edition was succeeded by Windows XP Embedded.

 
 

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This command creates a group “TestGroup” and attaches the VM “vm01” to that group. Detach a VM from the group, and delete the group if empty. For example:. This command detaches all groups from the VM “vm01” and deletes the empty group. This command creates the groups “TestGroup” and “TestGroup2”, if they do not exist, and attaches the VM “vm01” to both of them. With snapshots, you can save a particular state of a virtual machine for later use. At any later time, you can revert to that state, even though you may have changed the VM considerably since then.

A snapshot of a virtual machine is thus similar to a machine in Saved state, but there can be many of them, and these saved states are preserved. To see the snapshots of a virtual machine, click on the machine name in VirtualBox Manager. Then click the List icon next to the machine name, and select Snapshots. Until you take a snapshot of the machine, the list of snapshots will be empty except for the Current State item, which represents the “now” point in the lifetime of the virtual machine.

Take a snapshot. This makes a copy of the machine’s current state, to which you can go back at any given time later.

The snapshots window is shown. Do one of the following:. Click the Take icon. Right-click on the Current State item in the list and select Take.

In either case, a window is displayed prompting you for a snapshot name. This name is purely for reference purposes to help you remember the state of the snapshot. For example, a useful name would be “Fresh installation from scratch, no Guest Additions”, or “Service Pack 3 just installed”. You can also add a longer text in the Description field.

Your new snapshot will then appear in the snapshots list. Underneath your new snapshot, you will see an item called Current State , signifying that the current state of your VM is a variation based on the snapshot you took earlier. If you later take another snapshot, you will see that they are displayed in sequence, and that each subsequent snapshot is derived from an earlier one.

Oracle VM VirtualBox imposes no limits on the number of snapshots you can take. The only practical limitation is disk space on your host. Each snapshot stores the state of the virtual machine and thus occupies some disk space.

Restore a snapshot. In the list of snapshots, right-click on any snapshot you have taken and select Restore. By restoring a snapshot, you go back or forward in time. The current state of the machine is lost, and the machine is restored to the exact state it was in when the snapshot was taken. Restoring a snapshot will affect the virtual hard drives that are connected to your VM, as the entire state of the virtual hard drive will be reverted as well.

This means also that all files that have been created since the snapshot and all other file changes will be lost. In order to prevent such data loss while still making use of the snapshot feature, it is possible to add a second hard drive in write-through mode using the VBoxManage interface and use it to store your data. As write-through hard drives are not included in snapshots, they remain unaltered when a machine is reverted.

To avoid losing the current state when restoring a snapshot, you can create a new snapshot before the restore operation. By restoring an earlier snapshot and taking more snapshots from there, it is even possible to create a kind of alternate reality and to switch between these different histories of the virtual machine. This can result in a whole tree of virtual machine snapshots, as shown in the screenshot above. Delete a snapshot. This does not affect the state of the virtual machine, but only releases the files on disk that Oracle VM VirtualBox used to store the snapshot data, thus freeing disk space.

To delete a snapshot, right-click on the snapshot name in the snapshots tree and select Delete. Snapshots can be deleted even while a machine is running.

Whereas taking and restoring snapshots are fairly quick operations, deleting a snapshot can take a considerable amount of time since large amounts of data may need to be copied between several disk image files. Temporary disk files may also need large amounts of disk space while the operation is in progress.

There are some situations which cannot be handled while a VM is running, and you will get an appropriate message that you need to perform this snapshot deletion when the VM is shut down. Think of a snapshot as a point in time that you have preserved. More formally, a snapshot consists of the following:. The snapshot contains a complete copy of the VM settings, including the hardware configuration, so that when you restore a snapshot, the VM settings are restored as well.

For example, if you changed the hard disk configuration or the VM’s system settings, that change is undone when you restore the snapshot. The copy of the settings is stored in the machine configuration, an XML text file, and thus occupies very little space. The complete state of all the virtual disks attached to the machine is preserved. Going back to a snapshot means that all changes that had been made to the machine’s disks, file by file and bit by bit, will be undone as well.

Files that were since created will disappear, files that were deleted will be restored, changes to files will be reverted. Strictly speaking, this is only true for virtual hard disks in “normal” mode. You can configure disks to behave differently with snapshots, see Section 5. In technical terms, it is not the virtual disk itself that is restored when a snapshot is restored.

Instead, when a snapshot is taken, Oracle VM VirtualBox creates differencing images which contain only the changes since the snapshot were taken. When the snapshot is restored, Oracle VM VirtualBox throws away that differencing image, thus going back to the previous state. This is both faster and uses less disk space.

For the details, which can be complex, see Section 5. Creating the differencing image as such does not occupy much space on the host disk initially, since the differencing image will initially be empty and grow dynamically later with each write operation to the disk. The longer you use the machine after having created the snapshot, however, the more the differencing image will grow in size.

If you took a snapshot while the machine was running, the memory state of the machine is also saved in the snapshot.

This is in the same way that memory can be saved when you close a VM window. When you restore such a snapshot, execution resumes at exactly the point when the snapshot was taken.

The memory state file can be as large as the memory size of the VM and will therefore occupy considerable disk space. When you select a virtual machine from the list in the VirtualBox Manager window, you will see a summary of that machine’s settings on the right. Clicking on Settings displays a window, where you can configure many of the properties of the selected VM. But be careful when changing VM settings. It is possible to change all VM settings after installing a guest OS, but certain changes might prevent a guest OS from functioning correctly if done after installation.

This is because the Settings dialog enables you to change fundamental characteristics of the virtual machine that is created for your guest OS.

For example, the guest OS may not perform well if half of its memory is taken away. As a result, if the Settings button is disabled, shut down the current VM first. Oracle VM VirtualBox provides a wide range of parameters that can be changed for a virtual machine. The various settings that can be changed in the Settings window are described in detail in Chapter 3, Configuring Virtual Machines. Even more parameters are available when using the VBoxManage command line interface.

Removing a VM. The confirmation dialog enables you to specify whether to only remove the VM from the list of machines or to remove the files associated with the VM. Note that the Remove menu item is disabled while a VM is running. Moving a VM. Note that the Move menu item is disabled while a VM is running. You can create a full copy or a linked copy of an existing VM.

This copy is called a clone. The Clone Virtual Machine wizard guides you through the cloning process. Start the wizard by clicking Clone in the right-click menu of the VirtualBox Manager’s machine list or in the Snapshots view of the selected VM. Specify a new Name for the clone. You can choose a Path for the cloned virtual machine, otherwise Oracle VM VirtualBox uses the default machines folder. The Clone Type option specifies whether to create a clone linked to the source VM or to create a fully independent clone:.

Full Clone: Copies all dependent disk images to the new VM folder. A full clone can operate fully without the source VM. Linked Clone: Creates new differencing disk images based on the source VM disk images.

The Snapshots option specifies whether to create a clone of the current machine state only or of everything. Everything: Clones the current machine state and all its snapshots. Current Machine State and All Children:. Clones a VM snapshot and all its child snapshots.

This is the default setting. This is the best option when both the source VM and the cloned VM must operate on the same network. The duration of the clone operation depends on the size and number of attached disk images. In addition, the clone operation saves all the differencing disk images of a snapshot. Note that the Clone menu item is disabled while a machine is running.

Oracle VM VirtualBox can import and export virtual machines in the following formats:. This is the industry-standard format. Cloud service formats.

Export to and import from cloud services such as Oracle Cloud Infrastructure is supported. OVF is a cross-platform standard supported by many virtualization products which enables the creation of ready-made virtual machines that can then be imported into a hypervisor such as Oracle VM VirtualBox. Using OVF enables packaging of virtual appliances.

These are disk images, together with configuration settings that can be distributed easily. This way one can offer complete ready-to-use software packages, including OSes with applications, that need no configuration or installation except for importing into Oracle VM VirtualBox.

In particular, no guarantee is made that Oracle VM VirtualBox supports all appliances created by other virtualization software. For a list of known limitations, see Chapter 14, Known Limitations. They can come in several files, as one or several disk images, typically in the widely-used VMDK format. They also include a textual description file in an XML dialect with an. These files must then reside in the same directory for Oracle VM VirtualBox to be able to import them. Alternatively, the above files can be packed together into a single archive file, typically with an.

OVF cannot describe snapshots that were taken for a virtual machine. As a result, when you export a virtual machine that has snapshots, only the current state of the machine will be exported. The disk images in the export will have a flattened state identical to the current state of the virtual machine. From the file dialog, go to the file with either the. Click Import to open the Appliance Settings screen. You can change this behavior by using the Primary Group setting for the VM.

Base Folder: Specifies the directory on the host in which to store the imported VMs. You can override the default behavior and preserve the MAC addresses on import.

Click Import to import the appliance. Because disk images are large, the VMDK images that are included with virtual appliances are shipped in a compressed format that cannot be used directly by VMs. So, the images are first unpacked and copied, which might take several minutes. You can use the VBoxManage import command to import an appliance. Select one or more VMs to export, and click Next. The Appliance Settings screen enables you to select the following settings:. Format: Selects the Open Virtualization Format value for the output files.

File: Selects the location in which to store the exported files. Write Manifest File: Enables you to include a manifest file in the exported archive file. Click Next to show the Virtual System Settings screen.

You can edit settings for the virtual appliance. For example, you can change the name of the virtual appliance or add product information, such as vendor details or license text.

Click Export to begin the export process. Note that this operation might take several minutes. You can use the VBoxManage export command to export an appliance.

Prepare for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Integration. Section 1. Install the Extension Pack. Create a key pair. Upload the public key of the key pair from your client device to the cloud service. Create a cloud profile. The cloud profile contains resource identifiers for your cloud account, such as your user OCID, and details of your key pair. Your API requests are signed with your private key, and Oracle Cloud Infrastructure uses the public key to verify the authenticity of the request.

You must upload the public key to the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console. Optional Create a. The key pair is usually installed in the. Display the User Settings page. Click Profile , User Settings. The Add Public Key dialog is displayed. Choose Public Key File. This option enables you to browse to the public key file on your local hard disk.

Paste Public Keys. This option enables you to paste the contents of the public key file into the window in the dialog box. Click Add to upload the public key. A cloud profile is a text file that contains details of your key files and Oracle Cloud Identifier OCID resource identifiers for your cloud account, such as the following:.

Fingerprint of the public key. To obtain the fingerprint, you can use the openssl command:. Location of the private key on the client device. Specify the full path to the private key. Optional Passphrase for the private key. This is only required if the key is encrypted. Shown on the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console.

Click Administration , Tenancy Details. Tenancy OCID. Compartment OCID. Click Identity , Compartments. User OCID. Automatically, by using the Cloud Profile Manager. The Cloud Profile Manager is a component of Oracle VM VirtualBox that enables you to create, edit, and manage cloud profiles for your cloud service accounts.

Automatically, by using the VBoxManage cloudprofile command. Manually, by creating a config file in your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure configuration directory.

This is the same file that is used by the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure command line interface. Oracle VM VirtualBox automatically uses the config file if no cloud profile file is present in your global configuration directory.

Alternatively, you can import this file manually into the Cloud Profile Manager. This section describes how to use the Cloud Profile Manager to create a cloud profile. To create a cloud profile by importing settings from your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure configuration file.

Perform the following steps to create a new cloud profile automatically, using the Cloud Profile Manager:. Click the Add icon and specify a Name for the profile. Click Properties and specify the following property values for the profile:. Some of these are settings for your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure account, which you can view from the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console. Click Apply to save your changes. Perform the following steps to import an existing Oracle Cloud Infrastructure configuration file into the Cloud Profile Manager:.

Ensure that a config file is present in your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure configuration directory. Click the Import icon to open a dialog that prompts you to import cloud profiles from external files. This action overwrites any cloud profiles that are in your Oracle VM VirtualBox global settings directory.

Click Properties to show the cloud profile settings. Create a new cloud instance from a custom image stored on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. You can configure whether a cloud instance is created and started after the export process has completed.

From the Format drop-down list, select Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. In the Account drop-down list, select the cloud profile for your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure account.

The list after the Account field shows the profile settings for your cloud account. In the Machine Creation field, select an option to configure settings for a cloud instance created when you export to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.

The options enable you to do one of the following:. Configure settings for the cloud instance after you have finished exporting the VM. Configure settings for the cloud instance before you start to export the VM. Optional Edit storage settings used for the exported virtual machine in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. You can change the following settings:. Emulated mode is suitable for legacy OS images.

Depending on the selection in the Machine Creation field, the Cloud Virtual Machine Settings screen may be displayed before or after export. This screen enables you to configure settings for the cloud instance, such as Shape and Disk Size. Click Create. Depending on the Machine Creation setting, a cloud instance may be started after upload to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure is completed. Oracle Cloud Infrastructure provides the option to import a custom Linux image. Before an Oracle VM VirtualBox image can be exported to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, the custom image needs to be prepared to ensure that instances launched from the custom image can boot correctly and that network connections will work.

The following list shows some tasks to consider when preparing an Oracle Linux VM for export:. Use DHCP for network addresses. Do not specify a MAC address. Disable persistent network device naming rules. This means that the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure instance will use the same network device names as the VM. Add net. Disable any udev rules for network device naming.

For example, if an automated udev rule exists for net-persistence :. Enable the serial console. This enables you to troubleshoot the instance when it is running on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. Remove the resume setting from the kernel parameters. This setting slows down boot time significantly. This configures use of the serial console instead of a graphical terminal.

This configures the serial connection. This adds the serial console to the Linux kernel boot parameters. To verify the changes, reboot the machine and run the dmesg command to look for the updated kernel parameters. Enable paravirtualized device support. You do this by adding the virtio drivers to the initrd for the VM. This procedure works only on machines with a Linux kernel of version 3.

Check that the VM is running a supported kernel:. Use the dracut tool to rebuild initrd. Add the qemu module, as follows:.

Verify that the virtio drivers are now present in initrd. For more information about importing a custom Linux image into Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, see also:. In the Source drop-down list, select Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. Choose the required cloud instance from the list in the Machines field.

Click Import to import the instance from Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. The following describes the sequence of events when you import an instance from Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.

The custom image is exported to an Oracle Cloud Infrastructure object and is stored using Object Storage in the bucket specified by the user. The Oracle Cloud Infrastructure object is downloaded to the local host. Using a custom image means that you can quickly create cloud instances without having to upload your image to the cloud service every time. Perform the following steps to create a new cloud instance on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure:. From the Destination drop-down list, select Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.

In the Images list, select from the custom images available on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. For example, you can edit the Disk Size and Shape used for the VM instance and the networking configuration. Click Create to create the new cloud instance.

Monitor the instance creation process by using the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console. You can also use the VBoxManage cloud instance command to create and manage instances on a cloud service.

This section includes some examples of how VBoxManage commands can be used to integrate with Oracle Cloud Infrastructure and perform common cloud operations.

For more details about the available commands for cloud operations, see Section 8. The Global Settings dialog can be displayed using the File menu, by clicking the Preferences item.

This dialog offers a selection of settings, most of which apply to all virtual machines of the current user. The Extensions option applies to the entire system. Enables the user to specify the Host key.

The Host key is also used to trigger certain VM actions, see Section 1. Enables the user to specify various settings for Automatic Updates. Enables the user to specify the GUI language. Enables the user to specify the screen resolution, and its width and height. A default scale factor can be specified for all guest screens. Enables the user to configure the details of NAT networks. See Section 6. Enables the user to list and manage the installed extension packages.

As briefly mentioned in Section 1. For example, you can start a virtual machine with the VirtualBox Manager window and then stop it from the command line. This is the VirtualBox Manager, a graphical user interface that uses the Qt toolkit.

This interface is described throughout this manual. While this is the simplest and easiest front-end to use, some of the more advanced Oracle VM VirtualBox features are not included. As opposed to the other graphical interfaces, the headless front-end requires no graphics support.

This is useful, for example, if you want to host your virtual machines on a headless Linux server that has no X Window system installed. If the above front-ends still do not satisfy your particular needs, it is possible to create yet another front-end to the complex virtualization engine that is the core of Oracle VM VirtualBox, as the Oracle VM VirtualBox core neatly exposes all of its features in a clean API. Oracle VM VirtualBox provides a soft keyboard that enables you to input keyboard characters on the guest.

A soft keyboard is an on-screen keyboard that can be used as an alternative to a physical keyboard. For best results, ensure that the keyboard layout configured on the guest OS matches the keyboard layout used by the soft keyboard. Oracle VM VirtualBox does not do this automatically. When the physical keyboard on the host is not the same as the keyboard layout configured on the guest.

For example, if the guest is configured to use an international keyboard, but the host keyboard is US English. To send special key combinations to the guest. Note that some common key combinations are also available in the Input , Keyboard menu of the guest VM window. When using nested virtualization, the soft keyboard provides a method of sending key presses to a guest.

By default, the soft keyboard includes some common international keyboard layouts. You can copy and modify these to meet your own requirements. The name of the current keyboard layout is displayed in the task bar of the soft keyboard window.

This is the previous keyboard layout that was used. Click the Layout List icon in the task bar of the soft keyboard window. The Layout List window is displayed. Select the required keyboard layout from the entries in the Layout List window. The keyboard display graphic is updated to show the available input keys. Modifier keys such as Shift, Ctrl, and Alt are available on the soft keyboard. Click once to select the modifier key, click twice to lock the modifier key.

The Reset the Keyboard and Release All Keys icon can be used to release all pressed modifier keys, both on the host and the guest. To change the look of the soft keyboard, click the Settings icon in the task bar. You can change colors used in the keyboard graphic, and can hide or show sections of the keyboard, such as the NumPad or multimedia keys.

You can use one of the supplied default keyboard layouts as the starting point to create a custom keyboard layout. To permananently save a custom keyboard layout, you must save it to file. Otherwise, any changes you make are discarded when you close down the Soft Keyboard window. Custom keyboard layouts that you save are stored as an XML file on the host, in the keyboardLayouts folder in the global configuration data directory.

Highlight the required layout and click the Copy the Selected Layout icon. A new layout entry with a name suffix of -Copy is created. Edit keys in the new layout. Click on the key that you want to edit and enter new key captions in the Captions fields.

Optional Save the layout to file. This means that your custom keyboard layout will be available for future use. Any custom layouts that you create can later be removed from the Layout List, by highlighting and clicking the Delete the Selected Layout icon. For the various versions of Windows that are supported as host operating systems, please refer to Section 1.

In addition, Windows Installer must be present on your system. This should be the case for all supported Windows platforms. This will extract the installer into a temporary directory, along with the. MSI file. Run the following command to perform the installation:. Using either way displays the installation Welcome dialog and enables you to choose where to install Oracle VM VirtualBox, and which components to install.

USB support. This enables your VM’s virtual network cards to be accessed from other machines on your physical network. Python support. For this to work, an already working Windows Python installation on the system is required.

Python version at least 2. Python 3 is also supported. Depending on your Windows configuration, you may see warnings about unsigned drivers, or similar. The installer will create an Oracle VM VirtualBox group in the Windows Start menu, which enables you to launch the application and access its documentation. If this is not wanted, you must invoke the installer by first extracting as follows:.

Then, run either of the following commands on the extracted. The following features are available:. This feature must not be absent, since it contains the minimum set of files to have working Oracle VM VirtualBox installation. All networking support.

For example, to only install USB support along with the main binaries, run either of the following commands:. For some legacy Windows versions, the installer will automatically select the NDIS5 driver and this cannot be changed. Use either of the following commands:. Set to 1 to enable, 0 to disable. Default is 1. Specifies whether or not the file extensions. Perform the following steps to install on a Mac OS X host:. Double-click on the dmg file, to mount the contents. A window opens, prompting you to double-click on the VirtualBox.

To uninstall Oracle VM VirtualBox, open the disk image dmg file and double-click on the uninstall icon shown. To perform a non-interactive installation of Oracle VM VirtualBox you can use the command line version of the installer application. Mount the dmg disk image file, as described in the installation procedure, or use the following command line:.

For the various versions of Linux that are supported as host operating systems, see Section 1. You may need to install the following packages on your Linux system before starting the installation.

These consumer-oriented features were further extended in Windows XP in , which included a new visual style called Luna , a more user-friendly interface, updated versions of Windows Media Player and Internet Explorer 6 by default, and extended features from Windows Me, such as the Help and Support Center and System Restore.

Windows Vista , which was released in , focused on securing the Windows operating system against computer viruses and other malicious software by introducing features such as User Account Control. New features include Windows Aero , updated versions of the standard games e. Despite this, Windows Vista was critically panned for its poor performance on older hardware and its at-the-time high system requirements.

Windows 7 followed in nearly three years after its launch, and despite it technically having higher system requirements, [3] [4] reviewers noted that it ran better than Windows Vista. Windows 8 , which was released in , introduced many controversial changes, such as the replacement of the Start menu with the Start Screen, the removal of the Aero interface in favor of a flat, colored interface as well as the introduction of “Metro” apps later renamed to Universal Windows Platform apps , and the Charms Bar user interface element, all of which received considerable criticism from reviewers.

The following version of Windows, Windows 10 , which was released in , reintroduced the Start menu and added the ability to run Universal Windows Platform apps in a window instead of always in full screen. Windows 10 was generally well-received, with many reviewers stating that Windows 10 is what Windows 8 should have been.

The latest version of Windows, Windows 11 , was released on October 5, Windows 11 incorporates a redesigned user interface, including a new Start menu, a visual style featuring rounded corners, and a new layout for the Microsoft Store, [13] and also included Microsoft Edge by default.

The first independent version of Microsoft Windows, version 1. The project was briefly codenamed “Interface Manager” before the windowing system was implemented—contrary to popular belief that it was the original name for Windows and Rowland Hanson , the head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the name Windows would be more appealing to customers.

Windows 1. The first version of Microsoft Windows included a simple graphics painting program called Windows Paint ; Windows Write , a simple word processor ; an appointment calendar; a card-filer; a notepad ; a clock; a control panel ; a computer terminal ; Clipboard ; and RAM driver.

Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apple’s new Macintosh computer, which featured a graphical user interface. As part of the related business negotiations, Microsoft had licensed certain aspects of the Macintosh user interface from Apple; in later litigation, a district court summarized these aspects as “screen displays”. In the development of Windows 1.

For example, windows were only displayed “tiled” on the screen; that is, they could not overlap or overlie one another.

On December 31, , Microsoft declared Windows 1. Microsoft Windows version 2. Much of the popularity for Windows 2. Microsoft Windows received a major boost around this time when Aldus PageMaker appeared in a Windows version, having previously run only on Macintosh. Some computer historians [ who? Like prior versions of Windows, version 2. In such a configuration, it could run under another multitasker like DESQview , which used the protected mode.

It was also the first version to support the High Memory Area when running on an Intel compatible processor. Version 2. In Apple Computer, Inc. Microsoft Corp. Judge William Schwarzer dropped all but 10 of Apple’s claims of copyright infringement, and ruled that most of the remaining 10 were over uncopyrightable ideas.

On December 31, , Microsoft declared Windows 2. Windows 3. A few months after introduction, Windows 3. A “multimedia” version, Windows 3. This version was the precursor to the multimedia features available in Windows 3. The features listed above and growing market support from application software developers made Windows 3.

Support was discontinued on December 31, Its API was incompatible with Windows. Version 1. They cooperated with each other in developing their PC operating systems, and had access to each other’s code. After an interim 1. Microsoft would later imitate much of it in Windows Still, much of the system had bit code internally which required, among other things, device drivers to be bit code as well.

It also removed Real Mode, and only ran on an or better processor. Later Microsoft also released Windows 3. In and , Microsoft released Windows for Workgroups WfW , which was available both as an add-on for existing Windows 3. Windows for Workgroups included improved network drivers and protocol stacks, and support for peer-to-peer networking.

There were two versions of Windows for Workgroups, WfW 3. Unlike prior versions, Windows for Workgroups 3. All these versions continued version 3. Even though the 3. The Windows API became the de facto standard for consumer software. On December 31, , Microsoft declared Windows 3. Meanwhile, Microsoft continued to develop Windows NT. This successor was codenamed Cairo. In hindsight, Cairo was a much more difficult project than Microsoft had anticipated and, as a result, NT and Chicago would not be unified until Windows XP —albeit Windows , oriented to business, had already unified most of the system’s bolts and gears, it was XP that was sold to home consumers like Windows 95 and came to be viewed as the final unified OS.

Driver support was lacking due to the increased programming difficulty in dealing with NT’s superior hardware abstraction model. This problem plagued the NT line all the way through Windows Programmers complained that it was too hard to write drivers for NT, and hardware developers were not going to go through the trouble of developing drivers for a small segment of the market.

Additionally, although allowing for good performance and fuller exploitation of system resources, it was also resource-intensive on limited hardware, and thus was only suitable for larger, more expensive machines.

However, these same features made Windows NT perfect for the LAN server market which in was experiencing a rapid boom, as office networking was becoming common. Windows NT version 3. The Win32 API had three levels of implementation: the complete one for Windows NT, a subset for Chicago originally called Win32c missing features primarily of interest to enterprise customers at the time such as security and Unicode support, and a more limited subset called Win32s which could be used on Windows 3.

Thus Microsoft sought to ensure some degree of compatibility between the Chicago design and Windows NT, even though the two systems had radically different internal architectures. Windows NT was the first Windows operating system based on a hybrid kernel. The hybrid kernel was designed as a modified microkernel , influenced by the Mach microkernel developed by Richard Rashid at Carnegie Mellon University, but without meeting all of the criteria of a pure microkernel.

As released, Windows NT 3. The 3. Support for Windows NT 3. After Windows 3. The Win32 API first introduced with Windows NT was adopted as the standard bit programming interface, with Win16 compatibility being preserved through a technique known as ” thunking “. A new object-oriented GUI was not originally planned as part of the release, although elements of the Cairo user interface were borrowed and added as other aspects of the release notably Plug and Play slipped.

Microsoft did not change all of the Windows code to bit; parts of it remained bit albeit not directly using real mode for reasons of compatibility, performance, and development time. Additionally it was necessary to carry over design decisions from earlier versions of Windows for reasons of backwards compatibility, even if these design decisions no longer matched a more modern computing environment.

These factors eventually began to impact the operating system’s efficiency and stability. Microsoft marketing adopted Windows 95 as the product name for Chicago when it was released on August 24, Microsoft had a double gain from its release: first, it made it impossible for consumers to run Windows 95 on a cheaper, non-Microsoft DOS, secondly, although traces of DOS were never completely removed from the system and MS DOS 7 would be loaded briefly as a part of the booting process, Windows 95 applications ran solely in enhanced mode, with a flat bit address space and virtual memory.

These features make it possible for Win32 applications to address up to 2 gigabytes of virtual RAM with another 2 GB reserved for the operating system , and in theory prevented them from inadvertently corrupting the memory space of other Win32 applications. Three years after its introduction, Windows 95 was succeeded by Windows Unlike with Windows 3. Microsoft case, blaming unfair marketing tactics on Microsoft’s part. Some companies sold new hard drives with OSR2 preinstalled officially justifying this as needed due to the hard drive’s capacity.

The first Microsoft Plus! Microsoft ended extended support for Windows 95 on December 31, Microsoft released the successor to NT 3. It was Microsoft’s primary business-oriented operating system until the introduction of Windows Microsoft ended mainstream support for Windows NT 4.

Both editions were succeeded by Windows Professional and the Windows Server Family, respectively. This edition was succeeded by Windows XP Embedded. On June 25, , Microsoft released Windows 98 code-named Memphis , three years after the release of Windows 95 , two years after the release of Windows NT 4. USB support in Windows 98 is marketed as a vast improvement over Windows The release continued the controversial inclusion of the Internet Explorer browser with the operating system that started with Windows 95 OEM Service Release 1.

The action eventually led to the filing of the United States v. Microsoft case, dealing with the question of whether Microsoft was introducing unfair practices into the market in an effort to eliminate competition from other companies such as Netscape.

In , Microsoft released Windows 98 Second Edition, an interim release. One of the more notable new features was the addition of Internet Connection Sharing , a form of network address translation , allowing several machines on a LAN Local Area Network to share a single Internet connection.

Hardware support through device drivers was increased and this version shipped with Internet Explorer 5. Many minor problems that existed in the first edition were fixed making it, according to many, the most stable release of the Windows 9x family.

Mainstream support for Windows 98 and 98 SE ended on June 30, , and ended extended support on July 11, It has the version number Windows NT 5.

Windows has had four official service packs. It was successfully deployed both on the server and the workstation markets. Amongst Windows ‘s most significant new features was Active Directory , a near-complete replacement of the NT 4. Terminal Services , previously only available as a separate edition of NT 4, was expanded to all server versions.

A number of features from Windows 98 were incorporated also, such as an improved Device Manager, Windows Media Player , and a revised DirectX that made it possible for the first time for many modern games to work on the NT kernel. Windows is also the last NT-kernel Windows operating system to lack product activation. The offline installer allows you to install the app on your system without even connecting to the internet.

Since the links are official links, you can start downloading safely and reliably. Basically, it is designed for easy deployment and fast prototyping. SQL Server Express is available as a free package, and you can redistribute it with other applications.

It is designed to integrate smoothly with your other server infrastructure investments. Download SQL Server Microsoft SQL Server is a powerful and reliable free data management system that delivers a rich and reliable data store for lightweight Web Sites and desktop applications. Links to all its versions are provided below. Microsoft SQL Server is a powerful and reliable free data management system that provides an extensive and reliable data store for lightweight Web Sites and desktop applications.

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Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of computer software operating systems created by Microsoft. All versions of Microsoft Windows are commercial proprietary software. Windows Embedded Compact Windows CE is a variation of Microsoft’s Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. Windows CE is a distinctly different kernel, rather than a trimmed-down version of desktop Windows.

Windows Mobile is Microsoft’s discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones. Windows Phone is Microsoft’s discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones. The Windows NT kernel powers all recent Windows operating systems. Windows Embedded CE 6. Installing Windows requires an internal or external optical drive, or a USB flash drive.

A keyboard and mouse are the recommended input devices, though some versions support a touchscreen. For operating systems prior to Vista, an optical drive must be capable of reading CD media, while in Windows Vista onwards, windows server 2003 r2 standard sp2 iso free a drive must be DVD-compatible. The drive may be detached after installing Windows. Maximum limits on physical memory Перейти that Windows can address vary depending on both the Windows version and between IA and x64 versions.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Comparison overview of Microsoft Windows versions. Main article: Timeline of Microsoft Windows. Archived from the original on Retrieved Archived from the original on August 12, Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved August 4, Archived from the original on March 23, Archived from the original on March 10, Archived from the original on November 16, Archived from the original on February 26, Ваше reaktor 6 vs max for live free download это from the original on October 6, Archived from the original on October 5, Microsoft Support.

Archived from the original on December 10, Archived from the original on October 29, Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on December 31, Windows Hardware Development. May 11, Archived from the original on March 3, Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved September 2, January Archived from the original on March 7, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved May 24, Archived from the original on August 21, Archived from the original on May 11, Archived from the original on May 5, Archived from the original on May 22, Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Basic Computing Using Windows.

Microsoft Windows. Components History Timeline Criticism. Windows 1. Windows windows server 2003 r2 standard sp2 iso free Windows 98 Windows Me. Embedded Compact CE 5. Phone 7 Phone 8 Phone 8. Cairo Nashville Neptune Odyssey. List of versions Comparison Category. Categories : Microsoft Windows Operating system comparisons.

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Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Janus 3. Windows 3. Unsupported [1]. WorkstationServer. IAIAx Windows Server Windows Server R2. Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs. Windows Home Server. Windows Home Server IAwindows server 2003 r2 standard sp2 iso freeARMv7. Windows 8. Original Release. IAxx86ARMv7. November Update. Anniversary Update.

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